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  • What is Aleph Zero?

    Aleph Zero is a novel blockchain protocol based on a Directed Acyclic Graph algorithm. It solves the current solutions’ shortcomings and the problem known as Blockchain Trillema to serve as the best base layer for future decentralized applications.

  • How Aleph Zero is different from blockchain?

    In general, blockchain is a chain of blocks where each block contains the hash of the previous one. A block is a collection of data, and each piece of data is added to the blockchain by connecting one block after another in chronological order. What is important, in what we usually call ‘blockchain protocols,’ only one block at a time can be created globally, which requires a mechanism of assigning block creation task to a specific user. No matter what mechanism is utilized, such constraint puts serious limits on the whole protocol throughput. 

    Aleph, as a DAG protocol, allows multiple users to create units/blocks at the same time, and the blocks are subsequently ordered and validated by our novel consensus. Such an approach allows for massive gains in both speed and throughput of the whole platform.

    For a more detailed description, you can read our blog post about DAG vs blockchain.

  • Who is the team behind Aleph Zero?

    We are an experienced team of experts coming from many scientific and business backgrounds. We share the goal of decentralizing the world by developing the necessary solutions.

    You can read more about the team members here.

  • Where can I find Aleph Zero community?

    You can find the core community on Telegram, while you’ll also get all the updates on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

  • Will Aleph Zero have an ICO?

    Yes, that is planned. The exact date and more information will be published later.

  • How can I invest in Aleph Zero?

    You can find all the details and send an inquiry on the Become a Partner page.

  • Is Aleph Zero safe?

    Aleph ensures ultimate safety with three qualities: being asynchronous, leader-free, and Byzantine Fault Tolerant.

    Asynchronicity – Aleph does not rely on any timing assumptions and ensures that all honest transactions will be confirmed even during times of total asynchrony of the network. The outcome is both DDoS resilience and easy protocol recovery after the network partitions.

    Leader-free – Aleph is decentralized and leaderless. It does not have a single node in control of creating a total ordering of units at any stage of the process. This quality provides not only a greater degree of decentralization than many existing protocols—but also guards against timed DDoS attacks that can be aimed at validators.

    BFT – Aleph can tolerate up to 33% malicious committee members without an effect on the validation process. Each transaction is confirmed as soon as 67% of the members agree upon it.

  • What is Aleph Zero’s license?

    The exact license is yet to be chosen but it will be within the domain of open-source.

  • How Aleph Zero is different from IOTA’s Tangle?

    A permissionless consensus model requires some type of Sybil–resistant mechanism to become a validator. IOTA’s Tangle uses a relatively simple Proof–of–Work scheme which requires each transaction sender to solve a simple hash puzzle, while Aleph is based on the Proof-of-Stake mechanism, where each user’s ‘voting power’ in consensus is proportional to the number of tokens he holds. 

    Besides that, in IOTA protocol transactions are becoming increasingly more confirmed with time, but they never reach full finality. This is contrary to Aleph, where transactions reach finality within a constant number of rounds. 

    Currently, the security of  IOTA relies on a single node called ‘coordinator’, and despite many announcements, still, no timeline has been given for its removal. In our opinion, the concept of coordinator puts in question the whole concept of decentralization of the platform.

  • How Aleph Zero is different from Hedera Hashgraph?

    A subtle but crucial structural difference is that in Hashgraph, each communication between two nodes creates an ‘event,’ which is a container for potential queued transactions. In Aleph, we decoupled communication between nodes (i.e., gossiping) and the creation of units (how we call our ‘containers’) since we believe that the 1:1 ratio between these actions is suboptimal by far. Besides that, Aleph provides a constant bound on the average number of rounds necessary to validate each transaction and put it into total ordering even during times of total asynchrony of the network. In Hashgraph’s white paper, the average number of rounds is not bounded and their liveness proof is based on a coin round, which provides for a probability of achieving liveness as less than one in a billion for validating a transaction during each round in an asynchronous scenario (assuming a committee size of 39).

    There are also differences in the governance model. Aleph is fully permissionless, whereas in Hedera Hashgraph part of the committee (39 members) is chosen by the Hedera Hashgraph team. In Aleph, it is the coin holders who elect all of the validators of the network. Also, the Aleph algorithm is not patented. Most importantly, Aleph does not require license fees for users to build an application on the platform.

  • How is Aleph different from [% name] project?

    At the current time of writing, there are several thousand projects in the crypto-domain. It is therefore not feasible to construct comparisons towards every possible project out there. We have currently drafted FAQs for a few select projects, but we do intend to increase this count as we go along. If you have a problem finding the information you need, or If you believe our records currently are omitting a project that is advantageous to compare against, then please reach out in our telegram channel, and we will take your notion to heart.

  • When will Aleph Zero be on [% name] exchange?

    Aleph will never directly answer questions about specific exchanges or encourage speculative discourse. Any question asked about specific exchanges will only be answered with: “We do not engage in speculative discourse” which should neither be considered a confirmation or denial of any event. You are free to discuss the topic as we do not censor speculation, but on our channels, any statement can be removed if presented as fact, or if the discourse is deemed libel, manipulation, or slander.

  • What problems do you want to solve with Aleph Zero, and who for?

    We’re looking at solving the blockchain trilemma by introducing a well-balanced, peer-reviewed, scalable, and secure public network. We’re building on the shoulders of giants—academic and industry professionals within computer science and distributed computing world—and simply connecting the bits and pieces that have been around for four decades. On top of that, we’re adding several innovations of our own: a novel consensus protocol and a multichain privacy framework. 

     

    Having spent most of our time building proper fundamentals, Aleph Zero will become one of the most flexible solutions on the market—and therefore suited for the needs of a vast group of potential developers.

  • What is a privacy-enhancing smart contract infrastructure? How does it differ from today’s infrastructure?

    There are two ways in which you can use the privacy features of Aleph Zero—either natively, directly on the platform, or by integrating with the multichain privacy layer. We designed our solution, which we call Liminal, for developers who want to connect across various chains, e.g.:

     

    • It will be possible to write smart contracts on Ethereum or Near while keeping a private state of this contract on Aleph Zero. 
    • For those who decide to build directly on Aleph Zero, Liminal’s privacy-enhancing capabilities will be native.

     

    At the moment, most of the existing privacy solutions are based solely on “zero-knowledge” proofs or sMPC—but not both that complement each other in a hybrid fashion. 

     

    The idea behind ZK-SNARKs is to allow one party, the prover, to produce concise proof to convince the verifier that the “prover” is performing only correct computations on its private data. Importantly, this technique reveals nothing about the “prover’s” personal data to the verifier (hence the term “zero-knowledge”). 

     

    The second solution, called secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC) involves hiding inputs to functions (by keeping sensitive information off-chain on several nodes) but providing a verifiable and public output. Access to the data is only allowed if the nodes conduct a secure handshake. No one computer can access the encrypted contents without a supermajority.

     

    These two solutions complement each other by eliminating their respective problems. ZK-SNARKs allow for basic transfers yet are incapable of dealing with multi-user interactions. Zero-knowledge proofs can prove the correctness of the state update of their personal private state (for instance, how many private tokens they own on each address) that can be verified by blockchain. 

    ZK-SNARKs are not capable of achieving a concept of a common private state—a state owned by a smart contract that would be updated after users interact with it. This is where sMPC’s have their moment to shine. They can be used to implement the concept of a common private state, an example of which would be a decentralized exchange based on an automated market maker model without the need to reveal the value of each transaction. The problem with sMPC is that on its own, it is prohibitively slow; hence Liminal will use this solution only for the computations that need to interact directly with the common private state. The remaining computations can be performed and validated using ZK-SNARKs.

  • What is Aleph Zero?

    Aleph Zero is a novel blockchain protocol based on a Directed Acyclic Graph algorithm. It solves the current solutions’ shortcomings and the problem known as Blockchain Trillema to serve as the best base layer for future decentralized applications.

  • How Aleph Zero is different from blockchain?

    In general, blockchain is a chain of blocks where each block contains the hash of the previous one. A block is a collection of data, and each piece of data is added to the blockchain by connecting one block after another in chronological order. What is important, in what we usually call ‘blockchain protocols,’ only one block at a time can be created globally, which requires a mechanism of assigning block creation task to a specific user. No matter what mechanism is utilized, such constraint puts serious limits on the whole protocol throughput. 

    Aleph, as a DAG protocol, allows multiple users to create units/blocks at the same time, and the blocks are subsequently ordered and validated by our novel consensus. Such an approach allows for massive gains in both speed and throughput of the whole platform.

    For a more detailed description, you can read our blog post about DAG vs blockchain.

  • Who is the team behind Aleph Zero?

    We are an experienced team of experts coming from many scientific and business backgrounds. We share the goal of decentralizing the world by developing the necessary solutions.

    You can read more about the team members here.

  • Where can I find Aleph Zero community?

    You can find the core community on Telegram, while you’ll also get all the updates on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

  • Will Aleph Zero have an ICO?

    Yes, that is planned. The exact date and more information will be published later.

  • How can I invest in Aleph Zero?

    You can find all the details and send an inquiry on the Become a Partner page.

  • Is Aleph Zero safe?

    Aleph ensures ultimate safety with three qualities: being asynchronous, leader-free, and Byzantine Fault Tolerant.

    Asynchronicity – Aleph does not rely on any timing assumptions and ensures that all honest transactions will be confirmed even during times of total asynchrony of the network. The outcome is both DDoS resilience and easy protocol recovery after the network partitions.

    Leader-free – Aleph is decentralized and leaderless. It does not have a single node in control of creating a total ordering of units at any stage of the process. This quality provides not only a greater degree of decentralization than many existing protocols—but also guards against timed DDoS attacks that can be aimed at validators.

    BFT – Aleph can tolerate up to 33% malicious committee members without an effect on the validation process. Each transaction is confirmed as soon as 67% of the members agree upon it.

  • What is Aleph Zero’s license?

    The exact license is yet to be chosen but it will be within the domain of open-source.

  • How Aleph Zero is different from IOTA’s Tangle?

    A permissionless consensus model requires some type of Sybil–resistant mechanism to become a validator. IOTA’s Tangle uses a relatively simple Proof–of–Work scheme which requires each transaction sender to solve a simple hash puzzle, while Aleph is based on the Proof-of-Stake mechanism, where each user’s ‘voting power’ in consensus is proportional to the number of tokens he holds. 

    Besides that, in IOTA protocol transactions are becoming increasingly more confirmed with time, but they never reach full finality. This is contrary to Aleph, where transactions reach finality within a constant number of rounds. 

    Currently, the security of  IOTA relies on a single node called ‘coordinator’, and despite many announcements, still, no timeline has been given for its removal. In our opinion, the concept of coordinator puts in question the whole concept of decentralization of the platform.

  • How Aleph Zero is different from Hedera Hashgraph?

    A subtle but crucial structural difference is that in Hashgraph, each communication between two nodes creates an ‘event,’ which is a container for potential queued transactions. In Aleph, we decoupled communication between nodes (i.e., gossiping) and the creation of units (how we call our ‘containers’) since we believe that the 1:1 ratio between these actions is suboptimal by far. Besides that, Aleph provides a constant bound on the average number of rounds necessary to validate each transaction and put it into total ordering even during times of total asynchrony of the network. In Hashgraph’s white paper, the average number of rounds is not bounded and their liveness proof is based on a coin round, which provides for a probability of achieving liveness as less than one in a billion for validating a transaction during each round in an asynchronous scenario (assuming a committee size of 39).

    There are also differences in the governance model. Aleph is fully permissionless, whereas in Hedera Hashgraph part of the committee (39 members) is chosen by the Hedera Hashgraph team. In Aleph, it is the coin holders who elect all of the validators of the network. Also, the Aleph algorithm is not patented. Most importantly, Aleph does not require license fees for users to build an application on the platform.

  • How is Aleph different from [% name] project?

    At the current time of writing, there are several thousand projects in the crypto-domain. It is therefore not feasible to construct comparisons towards every possible project out there. We have currently drafted FAQs for a few select projects, but we do intend to increase this count as we go along. If you have a problem finding the information you need, or If you believe our records currently are omitting a project that is advantageous to compare against, then please reach out in our telegram channel, and we will take your notion to heart.

  • When will Aleph Zero be on [% name] exchange?

    Aleph will never directly answer questions about specific exchanges or encourage speculative discourse. Any question asked about specific exchanges will only be answered with: “We do not engage in speculative discourse” which should neither be considered a confirmation or denial of any event. You are free to discuss the topic as we do not censor speculation, but on our channels, any statement can be removed if presented as fact, or if the discourse is deemed libel, manipulation, or slander.

  • What problems do you want to solve with Aleph Zero, and who for?

    We’re looking at solving the blockchain trilemma by introducing a well-balanced, peer-reviewed, scalable, and secure public network. We’re building on the shoulders of giants—academic and industry professionals within computer science and distributed computing world—and simply connecting the bits and pieces that have been around for four decades. On top of that, we’re adding several innovations of our own: a novel consensus protocol and a multichain privacy framework. 

     

    Having spent most of our time building proper fundamentals, Aleph Zero will become one of the most flexible solutions on the market—and therefore suited for the needs of a vast group of potential developers.

  • What is a privacy-enhancing smart contract infrastructure? How does it differ from today’s infrastructure?

    There are two ways in which you can use the privacy features of Aleph Zero—either natively, directly on the platform, or by integrating with the multichain privacy layer. We designed our solution, which we call Liminal, for developers who want to connect across various chains, e.g.:

     

    • It will be possible to write smart contracts on Ethereum or Near while keeping a private state of this contract on Aleph Zero. 
    • For those who decide to build directly on Aleph Zero, Liminal’s privacy-enhancing capabilities will be native.

     

    At the moment, most of the existing privacy solutions are based solely on “zero-knowledge” proofs or sMPC—but not both that complement each other in a hybrid fashion. 

     

    The idea behind ZK-SNARKs is to allow one party, the prover, to produce concise proof to convince the verifier that the “prover” is performing only correct computations on its private data. Importantly, this technique reveals nothing about the “prover’s” personal data to the verifier (hence the term “zero-knowledge”). 

     

    The second solution, called secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC) involves hiding inputs to functions (by keeping sensitive information off-chain on several nodes) but providing a verifiable and public output. Access to the data is only allowed if the nodes conduct a secure handshake. No one computer can access the encrypted contents without a supermajority.

     

    These two solutions complement each other by eliminating their respective problems. ZK-SNARKs allow for basic transfers yet are incapable of dealing with multi-user interactions. Zero-knowledge proofs can prove the correctness of the state update of their personal private state (for instance, how many private tokens they own on each address) that can be verified by blockchain. 

    ZK-SNARKs are not capable of achieving a concept of a common private state—a state owned by a smart contract that would be updated after users interact with it. This is where sMPC’s have their moment to shine. They can be used to implement the concept of a common private state, an example of which would be a decentralized exchange based on an automated market maker model without the need to reveal the value of each transaction. The problem with sMPC is that on its own, it is prohibitively slow; hence Liminal will use this solution only for the computations that need to interact directly with the common private state. The remaining computations can be performed and validated using ZK-SNARKs.